METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR VIDEO CODING

Abstract:

Aspects of the disclosure provide method and apparatus for video encoding/decoding. In some examples, an apparatus includes processing circuitry for video decoding. The processing circuitry decodes prediction information of a block in a current picture from a coded video bitstream. The prediction information is indicative of an affine model in an intra block copy mode. The processing circuitry determines parameters for the affine model that transforms between the block and a reference block in a region of the current picture that has been reconstructed. Then, the processing circuitry reconstructs at least a sample of the block based on the affine model.


Publication Number: US20190246110

Publication Date: 2019-08-08

Application Number: 16203499

Applicant Date: 2018-11-28

International Class:

    H04N 19/149

    H04N 19/105

    H04N 19/33

    H04N 19/44

    H04N 19/159

    H04N 19/176

Inventors: Xiaozhong XU Xiang LI Shan LIU

Inventors Address: State College,PA,US Los Gatos,CA,US San Jose,CA,US

Applicators: Tencent America LLC

Applicators Address: Palo Alto CA US

Assignee: Tencent America LLC


Claims:

1. A method for video decoding in a decoder, comprising:decoding prediction information of a block in a current picture from a coded video bitstream, the prediction information being indicative of an affine model in an intra block copy mode;determining parameters for the affine model that transforms between the block and a reference block in a region of the current picture that has been reconstructed; andreconstructing at least a sample of the block based on the affine model.

2. The method of claim 1, further comprising at least one of:determining four parameters of the affine model according to block vectors from two different locations; anddetermining six parameters of the affine model according to block vectors from three different locations.

3. The method of claim 1, further comprising:determining the parameters of the affine model according to a block vector and a scaling factor value.

4. The method of claim 3, further comprising:decoding an index for the scaling factor value from the coded video bitstream; andconverting the index to the scaling factor value based on a mapping relationship between indexes and scaling factor values.

5. The method of claim 1, further comprising:determining the parameters of the affine model according to a block vector and a first scaling factor in x-dimension and a second scaling factor in y-dimension.

6. The method of claim 1, further comprising:determining the parameters of the affine model according to a block vector and a rotation factor value.

7. The method of claim 6, further comprising:decoding an index for the rotation factor value from the coded video bitstream; andconverting the index to the rotation factor value based on a mapping relationship between indexes and rotation factor values.

8. The method of claim 1, further comprising:determining a reference location in the reference block for a pixel in the block according to the affine model;determining an integer location when the reference location is between two consecutive integer locations; andreconstructing the pixel in the block based on a reference pixel at the integer location.

9. The method of claim 8, further comprising:rounding the reference location to the integer location; andreconstructing the pixel in the block based on the reference pixel at the integer location.

10. The method of claim 1, further comprising:determining a reference location in the reference block for a pixel in the block;using an interpolation filter to reconstruct the pixel when the reference location is between two consecutive integer locations.

11. An apparatus for video decoding, comprising:processing circuitry configured to:decode prediction information of a block in a current picture from a coded video bitstream, the prediction information being indicative of an affine model in an intra block copy mode;determine parameters for the affine model that transforms between the block and a reference block in a region of the current picture that has been reconstructed; andreconstruct at least a sample of the block based on the affine model.

12. The apparatus of claim 11, wherein the processing circuitry is further configured to:determine at least one of:four parameters of the affine model according to block vectors from two different locations; andsix parameters of the affine model according to block vectors from three different locations.

13. The apparatus of claim 11, wherein the processing circuitry is further configured to:determine the parameters of the affine model according to a block vector and a scaling factor value.

14. The apparatus of claim 13, wherein the processing circuitry is further configured to:decode an index for the scaling factor value from the coded video bitstream; andconvert the index to the scaling factor value based on a mapping relationship between indexes and scaling factor values.

15. The apparatus of claim 11, wherein the processing circuitry is further configured to:determine the parameters of the affine model according to a block vector and a first scaling factor in x-dimension and a second scaling factor in y-dimension.

16. The apparatus of claim 11, wherein the processing circuitry is further configured to:determine the parameters of the affine model according to a block vector and a rotation factor value.

17. The apparatus of claim 16, wherein the processing circuitry is further configured to:decode an index for the rotation factor value from the coded video bitstream; andconvert the index to the rotation factor value based on a mapping relationship between indexes and rotation factor values.

18. The apparatus of claim 11, wherein the processing circuitry is further configured to:determine a reference location in the reference block for a pixel in the block according to the affine model;determine an integer location when the reference location is between two consecutive integer locations; andreconstruct the pixel in the block based on a reference pixel at the integer location.

19. The apparatus of claim 11, wherein the processing circuitry is further configured to:determine a reference location in the reference block for a pixel in the block;use an interpolation filter to reconstruct the pixel when the reference location is between two consecutive integer locations.

20. A non-transitory computer-readable medium storing instructions which when executed by a computer for video decoding cause the computer to perform:decoding prediction information of a block in a current picture from a coded video bitstream, the prediction information being indicative of an affine model in an intra block copy mode;determining parameters for the affine model that transforms between the block and a reference block in a region of the current picture that has been reconstructed; andreconstructing at least a sample of the block based on the affine model.

Descriptions:

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

This present disclosure claims the benefit of priority to U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/626,558, METHODS FOR INTRA PICTURE BLOCK COMPENSATION WITH AFFINE MODEL IN IMAGE AND VIDEO CODING filed on Feb. 5, 2018, which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.

TECHNICAL FIELD

The present disclosure describes embodiments generally related to video coding.

BACKGROUND

The background description provided herein is for the purpose of generally presenting the context of the disclosure. Work of the presently named inventors, to the extent the work is described in this background section, as well as aspects of the description that may not otherwise qualify as prior art at the time of filing, are neither expressly nor impliedly admitted as prior art against the present disclosure.

Video coding and decoding can be performed using inter-picture prediction with motion compensation. Uncompressed digital video can include a series of pictures, each picture having a spatial dimension of, for example, 19201080 luminance samples and associated chrominance samples. The series of pictures can have a fixed or variable picture rate (informally also known as frame rate), of, for example 60 pictures per second or 60 Hz. Uncompressed video has significant bitrate requirements. For example, 1080p60 4:2:0 video at 8 bit per sample (19201080 luminance sample resolution at 60 Hz frame rate) requires close to 1.5 Gbit/s bandwidth. An hour of such video requires more than 600 GBytes of storage space.

One purpose of video coding and decoding can be the reduction of redundancy in the input video signal, through compression. Compression can help reduce the aforementioned bandwidth or storage space requirements, in some cases by two orders of magnitude or more. Both lossless and lossy compression, as well as a combination thereof can be employed. Lossless compression refers to techniques where an exact copy of the original signal can be reconstructed from the compressed original signal. When using lossy compression, the reconstructed signal may not be identical to the original signal, but the distortion between original and reconstructed signals is small enough to make the reconstructed signal useful for the intended application. In the case of video, lossy compression is widely employed. The amount of distortion tolerated depends on the application; for example, users of certain consumer streaming applications may tolerate higher distortion than users of television distribution applications. The compression ratio achievable can reflect that: higher allowable/tolerable distortion can yield higher compression ratios.

A video encoder and decoder can utilize techniques from several broad categories, including, for example, motion compensation, transform, quantization, and entropy coding.

Video codec technologies can include techniques known as intra coding. In intra coding, sample values are represented without reference to samples or other data from previously reconstructed reference pictures. In some video codecs, the picture is spatially subdivided into blocks of samples. When all blocks of samples are coded in intra mode, that picture can be an intra picture. Intra pictures and their derivations such as independent decoder refresh pictures, can be used to reset the decoder state and can, therefore, be used as the first picture in a coded video bitstream and a video session, or as a still image. The samples of an intra block can be exposed to a transform, and the transform coefficients can be quantized before entropy coding. Intra prediction can be a technique that minimizes sample values in the pre-transform domain. In some cases, the smaller the DC value after a transform is, and the smaller the AC coefficients are, the fewer the bits that are required at a given quantization step size to represent the block after entropy coding.

Traditional intra coding such as known from, for example MPEG-2 generation coding technologies, does not use intra prediction. However, some newer video compression technologies include techniques that attempt, from, for example, surrounding sample data and/or metadata obtained during the encoding/decoding of spatially neighboring, and preceding in decoding order, blocks of data. Such techniques are henceforth called intra prediction techniques. Note that in at least some cases, intra prediction is only using reference data from the current picture under reconstruction and not from reference pictures.

There can be many different forms of intra prediction. When more than one of such techniques can be used in a given video coding technology, the technique in use can be coded in an intra prediction mode. In certain cases, modes can have submodes and/or parameters, and those can be coded individually or included in the mode codeword. Which codeword to use for a given mode/submode/parameter combination can have an impact in the coding efficiency gain through intra prediction, and so can the entropy coding technology used to translate the codewords into a bitstream.

A certain mode of intra prediction was introduced with H.264, refined in H.265, and further refined in newer coding technologies such as joint exploration model (JEM), versatile video coding (VVC), and benchmark set (BMS). A predictor block can be formed using neighboring sample values belonging to already available samples. Sample values of neighboring samples are copied into the predictor block according to a direction. A reference to the direction in use can be coded in the bitstream or may itself be predicted.

Referring to FIG. 1, depicted in the lower right is a subset of nine predictor directions known from H.265's 35 possible predictor directions. The point where the arrows converge (101) represents the sample being predicted. The arrows represent the direction from which the sample is being predicted. For example, arrow (102) indicates that sample (101) is predicted from a sample or samples to the upper right, at a 45 degree angle from the horizontal. Similarly, arrow (103) indicates that sample (101) is predicted from a sample or samples to the lower left of sample (101), in a 22.5 degree angle from the horizontal.

Still referring to FIG. 1, on the top left there is depicted a square block (104) of 44 samples (indicated by a dashed, boldface line). The square block (104) includes 16 samples, each labelled with an S, its position in the Y dimension (e.g., row index) and its position in the X dimension (e.g., column index). For example, sample S21 is the second sample in the Y dimension (from the top) and the first (from the left) sample in the X dimension. Similarly, sample S44 is the fourth sample in block (104) in both the Y and X dimensions. As the block is 44 samples in size, S44 is at the bottom right. Further shown are reference samples that follow a similar numbering scheme. A reference sample is labelled with an R, its Y position (e.g., row index) and X position (column index) relative to block (104). In both H.264 and H.265, prediction samples neighbor the block under reconstruction; therefore no negative values need to be used.

Intra picture prediction can work by copying reference sample values from the neighboring samples as appropriated by the signaled prediction direction. For example, assume the coded video bitstream includes signaling that, for this block, indicates a prediction direction consistent with arrow (102)that is, samples are predicted from a prediction sample or samples to the upper right, at a 45 degree angle from the horizontal. In that case, samples S41, S32, S23, and S14 are predicted from the same reference sample R05. Sample S44 is then predicted from reference sample R08.

In certain cases, the values of multiple reference samples may be combined, for example through interpolation, in order to calculate a reference sample; especially when the directions are not evenly divisible by 45 degrees.

The number of possible directions has increased as video coding technology has developed. In H.264 (year 2003), nine different direction could be represented. That increased to 33 in H.265 (year 2013), and JEM/VVC/BMS, at the time of disclosure, can support up to 65 directions. Experiments have been conducted to identify the most likely directions, and certain techniques in the entropy coding are used to represent those likely directions in a small number of bits, accepting a certain penalty for less likely directions. Further, the directions themselves can sometimes be predicted from neighboring directions used in neighboring, already decoded, blocks.

FIG. 2 shows a schematic (201) that depicts 65 intra prediction directions according to JEM to illustrate the increasing number of prediction directions over time.

The mapping of intra prediction directions bits in the coded video bitstream that represent the direction can be different from video coding technology to video coding technology; and can range, for example, from simple direct mappings of prediction direction to intra prediction mode, to codewords, to complex adaptive schemes involving most probable modes, and similar techniques. In all cases, however, there can be certain directions that are statistically less likely to occur in video content than certain other directions. As the goal of video compression is the reduction of redundancy, those less likely directions will, in a well working video coding technology, be represented by a larger number of bits than more likely directions.

SUMMARY

Aspects of the disclosure provide method and apparatus for video encoding/decoding. In some examples, an apparatus includes processing circuitry for video decoding. The processing circuitry decodes prediction information of a block in a current picture from a coded video bitstream. The prediction information is indicative of an affine model in an intra block copy mode. The processing circuitry determines parameters for the affine model that transforms between the block and a reference block in a region of the current picture that has been reconstructed. Then, the processing circuitry reconstructs at least a sample of the block based on the affine model.

In an embodiment, the processing circuitry determines four parameters of the affine model according to block vectors from two different locations. In another embodiment, the processing circuitry determines six parameters of the affine model according to block vectors from three different locations.

In some embodiments, the processing circuitry determines the parameters of the affine model according to a block vector and a scaling factor value. In an example, the processing circuitry decodes an index for the scaling factor value from the coded video bitstream, and converts the index to the scaling factor value based on a mapping relationship between indexes and scaling factor values.

In some examples, the processing circuitry determines the parameters of the affine model according to a block vector, a first scaling factor in x-dimension and a second scaling factor in y-dimension.

In some embodiments, the processing circuitry determines the parameters of the affine model according to a block vector and a rotation factor value. In an example, the processing circuitry decodes an index for the rotation factor value from the coded video bitstream, and converts the index to the rotation factor value based on a mapping relationship between indexes and rotation factor values.

According to an aspect of the disclosure, the processing circuitry determines a reference location in the reference block for a pixel in the block according to the affine model. When the reference location is between two consecutive integer locations, the processing circuitry determines an integer location and then reconstructs the pixel in the block based on a reference pixel at the integer location. In an example, the processing circuitry rounds the reference location to the integer location, and reconstructs the pixel in the block based on the reference pixel at the integer location. In another example, the processing circuitry uses an interpolation filter to reconstruct the pixel when the reference location is between two consecutive integer locations.

Aspects of the disclosure also provide a non-transitory computer-readable medium storing instructions which when executed by a computer for video decoding cause the computer to perform the method for video decoding.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGSFurther features, the nature, and various advantages of the disclosed subject matter will be more apparent from the following detailed description and the accompanying drawings in which:FIG. 1 is a schematic illustration of a subset of intra prediction modes in accordance with H.265.FIG. 2 is an illustration of intra prediction directions according to JEM.FIG. 3 is a schematic illustration of a simplified block diagram of a communication system (300) in accordance with an embodiment.FIG. 4 is a schematic illustration of a simplified block diagram of a communication system (400) in accordance with an embodiment.FIG. 5 is a schematic illustration of a simplified block diagram of a decoder in accordance with an embodiment.FIG. 6 is a schematic illustration of a simplified block diagram of an encoder in accordance with an embodiment.FIG. 7 shows a block diagram of an encoder in accordance with another embodiment.FIG. 8 shows a block diagram of a decoder in accordance with another embodiment.FIG. 9 shows an example of intra block copy according to an embodiment of the disclosure.FIG. 10 shows an example of a block (1000) with an affine model.FIG. 11 shows examples of affine transformation.FIG. 12 shows an example of a simplified affine model of scaling in the intra block copy mode.FIG. 13 shows an example of a simplified affine model of rotation in the intra block copy mode.FIG. 14 shows a flow chart outlining a process example according to some embodiments of the disclosure.FIG. 15 is a schematic illustration of a computer system in accordance with an embodiment.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS

FIG. 3 illustrates a simplified block diagram of a communication system (300) according to an embodiment of the present disclosure. The communication system (300) includes a plurality of terminal devices that can communicate with each other, via, for example, a network (350). For example, the communication system (300) includes a first pair of terminal devices (310) and (320) interconnected via the network (350). In the FIG. 3 example, the first pair of terminal devices (310) and (320) performs unidirectional transmission of data. For example, the terminal device (310) may code video data (e.g., a stream of video pictures that are captured by the terminal device (310)) for transmission to the other terminal device (320) via the network (350). The encoded video data can be transmitted in the form of one or more coded video bitstreams. The terminal device (320) may receive the coded video data from the network (350), decode the coded video data to recover the video pictures and display video pictures according to the recovered video data. Unidirectional data transmission may be common in media serving applications and the like.

In another example, the communication system (300) includes a second pair of terminal devices (330) and (340) that performs bidirectional transmission of coded video data that may occur, for example, during videoconferencing. For bidirectional transmission of data, in an example, each terminal device of the terminal devices (330) and (340) may code video data (e.g., a stream of video pictures that are captured by the terminal device) for transmission to the other terminal device of the terminal devices (330) and (340) via the network (350). Each terminal device of the terminal devices (330) and (340) also may receive the coded video data transmitted by the other terminal device of the terminal devices (330) and (340), and may decode the coded video data to recover the video pictures and may display video pictures at an accessible display device according to the recovered video data.

In the FIG. 3 example, the terminal devices (310), (320), (330) and (340) may be illustrated as servers, personal computers and smart phones but the principles of the present disclosure may be not so limited. Embodiments of the present disclosure find application with laptop computers, tablet computers, media players and/or dedicated video conferencing equipment. The network (350) represents any number of networks that convey coded video data among the terminal devices (310), (320), (330) and (340), including for example wireline (wired) and/or wireless communication networks. The communication network (350) may exchange data in circuit-switched and/or packet-switched channels. Representative networks include telecommunications networks, local area networks, wide area networks and/or the Internet. For the purposes of the present discussion, the architecture and topology of the network (350) may be immaterial to the operation of the present disclosure unless explained herein below.

FIG. 4 illustrates, as an example for an application for the disclosed subject matter, the placement of a video encoder and a video decoder in a streaming environment. The disclosed subject matter can be equally applicable to other video enabled applications, including, for example, video conferencing, digital TV, storing of compressed video on digital media including CD, DVD, memory stick and the like, and so on.

A streaming system may include a capture subsystem (413), that can include a video source (401), for example a digital camera, creating for example a stream of video pictures (402) that are uncompressed. In an example, the stream of video pictures (402) includes samples that are taken by the digital camera. The stream of video pictures (402), depicted as a bold line to emphasize a high data volume when compared to encoded video data (404) (or coded video bitstreams), can be processed by an electronic device (420) that includes a video encoder (403) coupled to the video source (401). The video encoder (403) can include hardware, software, or a combination thereof to enable or implement aspects of the disclosed subject matter as described in more detail below. The encoded video data (404) (or encoded video bitstream (404)), depicted as a thin line to emphasize the lower data volume when compared to the stream of video pictures (402), can be stored on a streaming server (405) for future use. One or more streaming client subsystems, such as client subsystems (406) and (408) in FIG. 4 can access the streaming server (405) to retrieve copies (407) and (409) of the encoded video data (404). A client subsystem (406) can include a video decoder (410), for example, in an electronic device (430). The video decoder (410) decodes the incoming copy (407) of the encoded video data and creates an outgoing stream of video pictures (411) that can be rendered on a display (412) (e.g., display screen) or other rendering device (not depicted). In some streaming systems, the encoded video data (404), (407), and (409) (e.g., video bitstreams) can be encoded according to certain video coding/compression standards. Examples of those standards include ITU-T Recommendation H.265. In an example, a video coding standard under development is informally known as Versatile Video Coding or VVC. The disclosed subject matter may be used in the context of VVC.

It is noted that the electronic devices (420) and (430) can include other components (not shown). For example, the electronic device (420) can include a video decoder (not shown) and the electronic device (430) can include a video encoder (not shown) as well.

FIG. 5 shows a block diagram of a video decoder (510) according to an embodiment of the present disclosure. The video decoder (510) can be included in an electronic device (530). The electronic device (530) can include a receiver (531) (e.g., receiving circuitry). The video decoder (510) can be used in the place of the video decoder (410) in the FIG. 4 example.

The receiver (531) may receive one or more coded video sequences to be decoded by the video decoder (510); in the same or another embodiment, one coded video sequence at a time, where the decoding of each coded video sequence is independent from other coded video sequences. The coded video sequence may be received from a channel (501), which may be a hardware/software link to a storage device which stores the encoded video data. The receiver (531) may receive the encoded video data with other data, for example, coded audio data and/or ancillary data streams, that may be forwarded to their respective using entities (not depicted). The receiver (531) may separate the coded video sequence from the other data. To combat network jitter, a buffer memory (515) may be coupled in between the receiver (531) and an entropy decoder/parser (520) (parser (520) henceforth). In certain applications, the buffer memory (515) is part of the video decoder (510). In others, it can be outside of the video decoder (510) (not depicted). In still others, there can be a buffer memory (not depicted) outside of the video decoder (510), for example to combat network jitter, and in addition another buffer memory (515) inside the video decoder (510), for example to handle playout timing. When the receiver (531) is receiving data from a store/forward device of sufficient bandwidth and controllability, or from an isosynchronous network, the buffer memory (515) may not be needed, or can be small. For use on best effort packet networks such as the Internet, the buffer memory (515) may be required, can be comparatively large and can be advantageously of adaptive size, and may at least partially be implemented in an operating system or similar elements (not depicted) outside of the video decoder (510).

The video decoder (510) may include the parser (520) to reconstruct symbols (521) from the coded video sequence. Categories of those symbols include information used to manage operation of the video decoder (510), and potentially information to control a rendering device such as a render device (512) (e.g., a display screen) that is not an integral part of the electronic device (530) but can be coupled to the electronic device (530), as was shown in FIG. 5. The control information for the rendering device(s) may be in the form of Supplementary Enhancement Information (SEI messages) or Video Usability Information (VUI) parameter set fragments (not depicted). The parser (520) may parse/entropy-decode the coded video sequence that is received. The coding of the coded video sequence can be in accordance with a video coding technology or standard, and can follow various principles, including variable length coding, Huffman coding, arithmetic coding with or without context sensitivity, and so forth. The parser (520) may extract from the coded video sequence, a set of subgroup parameters for at least one of the subgroups of pixels in the video decoder, based upon at least one parameter corresponding to the group. Subgroups can include Groups of Pictures (GOPs), pictures, tiles, slices, macroblocks, Coding Units (CUs), blocks, Transform Units (TUs), Prediction Units (PUs) and so forth. The parser (520) may also extract from the coded video sequence information such as transform coefficients, quantizer parameter values, motion vectors, and so forth.

The parser (520) may perform entropy decoding/parsing operation on the video sequence received from the buffer memory (515), so as to create symbols (521).

Reconstruction of the symbols (521) can involve multiple different units depending on the type of the coded video picture or parts thereof (such as: inter and intra picture, inter and intra block), and other factors. Which units are involved, and how, can be controlled by the subgroup control information that was parsed from the coded video sequence by the parser (520). The flow of such subgroup control information between the parser (520) and the multiple units below is not depicted for clarity.

Beyond the functional blocks already mentioned, the video decoder (510) can be conceptually subdivided into a number of functional units as described below. In a practical implementation operating under commercial constraints, many of these units interact closely with each other and can, at least partly, be integrated into each other. However, for the purpose of describing the disclosed subject matter, the conceptual subdivision into the functional units below is appropriate.

A first unit is the scaler/inverse transform unit (551). The scaler/inverse transform unit (551) receives a quantized transform coefficient as well as control information, including which transform to use, block size, quantization factor, quantization scaling matrices, etc. as symbol(s) (521) from the parser (520). The scaler/inverse transform unit (551) can output blocks comprising sample values, that can be input into aggregator (555).

In some cases, the output samples of the scaler/inverse transform (551) can pertain to an intra coded block; that is: a block that is not using predictive information from previously reconstructed pictures, but can use predictive information from previously reconstructed parts of the current picture. Such predictive information can be provided by an intra picture prediction unit (552). In some cases, the intra picture prediction unit (552) generates a block of the same size and shape of the block under reconstruction, using surrounding already reconstructed information fetched from the current picture buffer (558). The current picture buffer (558) buffers, for example, partly reconstructed current picture and/or fully reconstructed current picture. The aggregator (555), in some cases, adds, on a per sample basis, the prediction information the intra prediction unit (552) has generated to the output sample information as provided by the scaler/inverse transform unit (551).

In other cases, the output samples of the scaler/inverse transform unit (551) can pertain to an inter coded, and potentially motion compensated block. In such a case, a motion compensation prediction unit (553) can access reference picture memory (557) to fetch samples used for prediction. After motion compensating the fetched samples in accordance with the symbols (521) pertaining to the block, these samples can be added by the aggregator (555) to the output of the scaler/inverse transform unit (551) (in this case called the residual samples or residual signal) so as to generate output sample information. The addresses within the reference picture memory (557) from where the motion compensation prediction unit (553) fetches prediction samples can be controlled by motion vectors, available to the motion compensation prediction unit (553) in the form of symbols (521) that can have, for example X, Y, and reference picture components. Motion compensation also can include interpolation of sample values as fetched from the reference picture memory (557) when sub-sample exact motion vectors are in use, motion vector prediction mechanisms, and so forth.

The output samples of the aggregator (555) can be subject to various loop filtering techniques in the loop filter unit (556). Video compression technologies can include in-loop filter technologies that are controlled by parameters included in the coded video sequence (also referred to as coded video bitstream) and made available to the loop filter unit (556) as symbols (521) from the parser (520), but can also be responsive to meta-information obtained during the decoding of previous (in decoding order) parts of the coded picture or coded video sequence, as well as responsive to previously reconstructed and loop-filtered sample values.

The output of the loop filter unit (556) can be a sample stream that can be output to the render device (512) as well as stored in the reference picture memory (557) for use in future inter-picture prediction.

Certain coded pictures, once fully reconstructed, can be used as reference pictures for future prediction. For example, once a coded picture corresponding to a current picture is fully reconstructed and the coded picture has been identified as a reference picture (by, for example, the parser (520)), the current picture buffer (558) can become a part of the reference picture memory (557), and a fresh current picture buffer can be reallocated before commencing the reconstruction of the following coded picture.

The video decoder (510) may perform decoding operations according to a predetermined video compression technology in a standard, such as ITU-T Rec. H.265. The coded video sequence may conform to a syntax specified by the video compression technology or standard being used, in the sense that the coded video sequence adheres to both the syntax of the video compression technology or standard and the profiles as document in the video compression technology or standard. Specifically, a profile can select a certain tools as the only tools available for use under that profile from all the tools available in the video compression technology or standard. Also necessary for compliance can be that the complexity of the coded video sequence is within bounds as defined by the level of the video compression technology or standard. In some cases, levels restrict the maximum picture size, maximum frame rate, maximum reconstruction sample rate (measured in, for example megasamples per second), maximum reference picture size, and so on. Limits set by levels can, in some cases, be further restricted through Hypothetical Reference Decoder (HRD) specifications and metadata for HRD buffer management signaled in the coded video sequence.

In an embodiment, the receiver (531) may receive additional (redundant) data with the encoded video. The additional data may be included as part of the coded video sequence(s). The additional data may be used by the video decoder (510) to properly decode the data and/or to more accurately reconstruct the original video data. Additional data can be in the form of, for example, temporal, spatial, or signal noise ratio (SNR) enhancement layers, redundant slices, redundant pictures, forward error correction codes, and so on.

FIG. 6 shows a block diagram of a video encoder (603) according to an embodiment of the present disclosure. The video encoder (603) is included in an electronic device (620). The electronic device (620) includes a transmitter (640) (e.g., transmitting circuitry). The video encoder (603) can be used in the place of the video encoder (403) in the FIG. 4 example.

The video encoder (603) may receive video samples from a video source (601)(that is not part of the electronic device (620) in the FIG. 6 example) that may capture video image(s) to be coded by the video encoder (603). In another example, the video source (601) is a part of the electronic device (620).

The video source (601) may provide the source video sequence to be coded by the video encoder (603) in the form of a digital video sample stream that can be of any suitable bit depth (for example: 8 bit, 10 bit, 12 bit, . . . ), any colorspace (for example, BT.601 Y CrCB, RGB, . . . ) and any suitable sampling structure (for example Y CrCb 4:2:0, Y CrCb 4:4:4). In a media serving system, the video source (601) may be a storage device storing previously prepared video. In a videoconferencing system, the video source (601) may be a camera that captures local image information as a video sequence. Video data may be provided as a plurality of individual pictures that impart motion when viewed in sequence. The pictures themselves may be organized as a spatial array of pixels, wherein each pixel can comprise one or more samples depending on the sampling structure, color space, etc. in use. A person skilled in the art can readily understand the relationship between pixels and samples. The description below focusses on samples.

According to an embodiment, the video encoder (603) may code and compress the pictures of the source video sequence into a coded video sequence (643) in real time or under any other time constraints as required by the application. Enforcing appropriate coding speed is one function of a controller (650). In some embodiments, the controller (650) controls other functional units as described below and is functionally coupled to the other functional units. The coupling is not depicted for clarity. Parameters set by the controller (650) can include rate control related parameters (picture skip, quantizer, lambda value of rate-distortion optimization techniques, . . . ), picture size, group of pictures (GOP) layout, maximum motion vector search range, and so forth. The controller (650) can be configured to have other suitable functions that pertain to the video encoder (603) optimized for a certain system design.

In some embodiments, the video encoder (603) is configured to operate in a coding loop. As an oversimplified description, in an example, the coding loop can include a source coder (630) (e.g., responsible for creating symbols, such as a symbol stream, based on an input picture to be coded, and a reference picture(s)), and a (local) decoder (633) embedded in the video encoder (603). The decoder (633) reconstructs the symbols to create the sample data in a similar manner as a (remote) decoder also would create (as any compression between symbols and coded video bitstream is lossless in the video compression technologies considered in the disclosed subject matter). The reconstructed sample stream (sample data) is input to the reference picture memory (634). As the decoding of a symbol stream leads to bit-exact results independent of decoder location (local or remote), the content in the reference picture memory (634) is also bit exact between the local encoder and remote encoder. In other words, the prediction part of an encoder sees as reference picture samples exactly the same sample values as a decoder would see when using prediction during decoding. This fundamental principle of reference picture synchronicity (and resulting drift, if synchronicity cannot be maintained, for example because of channel errors) is used in some related arts as well.

The operation of the local decoder (633) can be the same as of a remote decoder, such as the video decoder (510), which has already been described in detail above in conjunction with FIG. 5. Briefly referring also to FIG. 5, however, as symbols are available and encoding/decoding of symbols to a coded video sequence by an entropy coder (645) and the parser (520) can be lossless, the entropy decoding parts of the video decoder (510), including the buffer memory (515), and parser (520) may not be fully implemented in the local decoder (633).

An observation that can be made at this point is that any decoder technology except the parsing/entropy decoding that is present in a decoder also necessarily needs to be present, in substantially identical functional form, in a corresponding encoder. For this reason, the disclosed subject matter focuses on decoder operation. The description of encoder technologies can be abbreviated as they are the inverse of the comprehensively described decoder technologies. Only in certain areas a more detail description is required and provided below.

During operation, in some examples, the source coder (630) may perform motion compensated predictive coding, which codes an input picture predictively with reference to one or more previously-coded picture from the video sequence that were designated as reference pictures. In this manner, the coding engine (632) codes differences between pixel blocks of an input picture and pixel blocks of reference picture(s) that may be selected as prediction reference(s) to the input picture.

The local video decoder (633) may decode coded video data of pictures that may be designated as reference pictures, based on symbols created by the source coder (630). Operations of the coding engine (632) may advantageously be lossy processes. When the coded video data may be decoded at a video decoder (not shown in FIG. 6), the reconstructed video sequence typically may be a replica of the source video sequence with some errors. The local video decoder (633) replicates decoding processes that may be performed by the video decoder on reference pictures and may cause reconstructed reference pictures to be stored in the reference picture cache (634). In this manner, the video encoder (603) may store copies of reconstructed reference pictures locally that have common content as the reconstructed reference pictures that will be obtained by a far-end video decoder (absent transmission errors).

The predictor (635) may perform prediction searches for the coding engine (632). That is, for a new picture to be coded, the predictor (635) may search the reference picture memory (634) for sample data (as candidate reference pixel blocks) or certain metadata such as reference picture motion vectors, block shapes, and so on, that may serve as an appropriate prediction reference for the new pictures. The predictor (635) may operate on a sample block-by-pixel block basis to find appropriate prediction references. In some cases, as determined by search results obtained by the predictor (635), an input picture may have prediction references drawn from multiple reference pictures stored in the reference picture memory (634).

The controller (650) may manage coding operations of the source coder (630), including, for example, setting of parameters and subgroup parameters used for encoding the video data.

Output of all aforementioned functional units may be subjected to entropy coding in the entropy coder (645). The entropy coder (645) translates the symbols as generated by the various functional units into a coded video sequence, by lossless compressing the symbols according to technologies known to a person skilled in the art as, for example Huffman coding, variable length coding, arithmetic coding, and so forth.

The transmitter (640) may buffer the coded video sequence(s) as created by the entropy coder (645) to prepare for transmission via a communication channel (660), which may be a hardware/software link to a storage device which would store the encoded video data. The transmitter (640) may merge coded video data from the video coder (603) with other data to be transmitted, for example, coded audio data and/or ancillary data streams (sources not shown).

The controller (650) may manage operation of the video encoder (603). During coding, the controller (650) may assign to each coded picture a certain coded picture type, which may affect the coding techniques that may be applied to the respective picture. For example, pictures often may be assigned as one of the following picture types:

An Intra Picture (I picture) may be one that may be coded and decoded without using any other picture in the sequence as a source of prediction. Some video codecs allow for different types of Intra pictures, including, for example Independent Decoder Refresh (IDR) Pictures. A person skilled in the art is aware of those variants of I pictures and their respective applications and features.

A Predictive picture (P picture) may be one that may be coded and decoded using intra prediction or inter prediction using at most one motion vector and reference index to predict the sample values of each block.

A Bi-directionally Predictive Picture (B Picture) may be one that may be coded and decoded using intra prediction or inter prediction using at most two motion vectors and reference indices to predict the sample values of each block. Similarly, multiple-predictive pictures can use more than two reference pictures and associated metadata for the reconstruction of a single block.

Source pictures commonly may be subdivided spatially into a plurality of sample blocks (for example, blocks of 44, 88, 48, or 1616 samples each) and coded on a block-by-block basis. Blocks may be coded predictively with reference to other (already coded) blocks as determined by the coding assignment applied to the blocks' respective pictures. For example, blocks of I pictures may be coded non-predictively or they may be coded predictively with reference to already coded blocks of the same picture (spatial prediction or intra prediction). Pixel blocks of P pictures may be coded predictively, via spatial prediction or via temporal prediction with reference to one previously coded reference pictures. Blocks of B pictures may be coded predictively, via spatial prediction or via temporal prediction with reference to one or two previously coded reference pictures.

The video encoder (603) may perform coding operations according to a predetermined video coding technology or standard, such as ITU-T Rec. H.265. In its operation, the video encoder (603) may perform various compression operations, including predictive coding operations that exploit temporal and spatial redundancies in the input video sequence. The coded video data, therefore, may conform to a syntax specified by the video coding technology or standard being used.

In an embodiment, the transmitter (640) may transmit additional data with the encoded video. The source coder (630) may include such data as part of the coded video sequence. Additional data may comprise temporal/spatial/SNR enhancement layers, other forms of redundant data such as redundant pictures and slices, Supplementary Enhancement Information (SEI) messages, Visual Usability Information (VUI) parameter set fragments, and so on.

A video may be captured as a plurality of source pictures (video pictures) in a temporal sequence. Intra-picture prediction (often abbreviated to Intra prediction) makes uses of spatial correlation in a given picture, and inter-picture prediction makes uses of the (temporal or other) correlation between the pictures. In an example, a specific picture under encoding/decoding, which is referred to as a current picture, is partitioned into blocks. When a block in the current picture is similar to a reference block in a previously coded and still buffered reference picture in the video, the block in the current picture can be coded by a vector that is referred to as a motion vector. The motion vector points to the reference block in the reference picture, and can have a third dimension identifying the reference picture, in case multiple reference pictures are in use.

In some embodiments, a bi-prediction technique can be used in the inter-picture prediction. According to the bi-prediction technique, two reference pictures, such as a first and a second reference picture that are both prior in decoding order to the current picture in the video (but may be in the past and future, respectively, in display order) are used. A block in the current picture can be coded by a first motion vector that points to a first reference block in the first reference picture, and a second motion vector that points to a second reference block in the second reference picture. The block can be predicted by a combination of the first reference block and the second reference block.

Further, a merge mode technique can be used in the inter-picture prediction to improve coding efficiency.

According to some embodiments of the disclosure, predictions, such as inter-picture predictions and intra-picture predictions are performed in the unit of blocks. For example, according to the HEVC standard, a picture in a sequence of video pictures is partitioned into coding tree units (CTU) for compression, the CTUs in a picture have the same size, such as 6464 pixels, 3232 pixels, or 1616 pixels. In general, a CTU includes three coding tree blocks (CTBs), which are one luma CTB and two chroma CTBs. Each CTU can be recursively quadtree split into one or multiple coding units (CUs). For example, a CTU of 6464 pixels can be split into one CU of 6464 pixels, or 4 CUs of 3232 pixels, or 16 CUs of 1616 pixels. In an example, each CU is analyzed to determine a prediction type for the CU, such as an inter prediction type or an intra prediction type. The CU is split into one or more prediction units (PUs) depending on the temporal and/or spatial predictability. Generally, each PU includes a luma prediction block (PB), and two chroma PBs. In an embodiment, a prediction operation in coding (encoding/decoding) is performed in the unit of a prediction block. Using a luma prediction block as an example of a prediction block, the prediction block includes a matrix of values (e.g., luma values) for pixels, such as 88 pixels, 1616 pixels, 816 pixels, 168 pixels and the like.

FIG. 7 shows a diagram of a video encoder (703) according to another embodiment of the disclosure. The video encoder (703) is configured to receive a processing block (e.g., a prediction block) of sample values within a current video picture in a sequence of video pictures, and encode the processing block into a coded picture that is part of a coded video sequence. In an example, the video encoder (703) is used in the place of the video encoder (403) in the FIG. 4 example.

In an HEVC example, the video encoder (703) receives a matrix of sample values for a processing block, such as a prediction block of 88 samples, and the like. The video encoder (703) determines whether the processing block is best coded using intra mode, inter mode, or bi-prediction mode using, for example, rate-distortion optimization. When the processing block is to be coded in intra mode, the video encoder (703) may use an intra prediction technique to encode the processing block into the coded picture; and when the processing block is to be coded in inter mode or bi-prediction mode, the video encoder (703) may use an inter prediction or bi-prediction technique, respectively, to encode the processing block into the coded picture. In certain video coding technologies, merge mode can be an inter picture prediction submode where the motion vector is derived from one or more motion vector predictors without the benefit of a coded motion vector component outside the predictors. In certain other video coding technologies, a motion vector component applicable to the subject block may be present. In an example, the video encoder (703) includes other components, such as a mode decision module (not shown) to determine the mode of the processing blocks.

In the FIG. 7 example, the video encoder (703) includes the inter encoder (730), an intra encoder (722), a residue calculator (723), a switch (726), a residue encoder (724), a general controller (721) and an entropy encoder (725) coupled together as shown in FIG. 7.

The inter encoder (730) is configured to receive the samples of the current block (e.g., a processing block), compare the block to one or more reference blocks in reference pictures (e.g., blocks in previous pictures and later pictures), generate inter prediction information (e.g., description of redundant information according to inter encoding technique, motion vectors, merge mode information), and calculate inter prediction results (e.g., predicted block) based on the inter prediction information using any suitable technique. In some examples, the reference pictures are decoded reference pictures that are decoded based on the encoded video information.

The intra encoder (722) is configured to receive the samples of the current block (e.g., a processing block), in some cases compare the block to blocks already coded in the same picture, generate quantized coefficients after transform and, in some cases also intra prediction information (e.g., an intra prediction direction information according to one or more intra encoding techniques). In an example, the intra encoder (722) also calculates intra prediction results (e.g., predicted block) based on the intra prediction information and reference blocks in the same picture.

The general controller (721) is configured to determine general control data and control other components of the video encoder (703) based on the general control data. In an example, the general controller (721) determines the mode of the block, and provides a control signal to the switch (726) based on the mode. For example, when the mode is the intra, the general controller (721) controls the switch (726) to select the intra mode result for use by the residue calculator (723), and controls the entropy encoder (725) to select the intra prediction information and include the intra prediction information in the bitstream; and when the mode is the inter mode, the general controller (721) controls the switch (726) to select the inter prediction result for use by the residue calculator (723), and controls the entropy encoder (725) to select the inter prediction information and include the inter prediction information in the bitstream.

The residue calculator (723) is configured to calculate a difference (residue data) between the received block and prediction results selected from the intra encoder (722) or the inter encoder (730). The residue encoder (724) is configured to operate based on the residue data to encode the residue data to generate the transform coefficients. In an example, the residue encoder (724) is configured to convert the residue data in the frequency domain, and generate the transform coefficients. The transform coefficients are then subject to quantization processing to obtain quantized transform coefficients. In various embodiments, the video encoder (703) also includes a residue decoder (728). The residue decoder (728) is configured to perform inverse-transform, and generate the decoded residue data. The decoded residue data can be suitably used by the intra encoder (722) and the inter encoder (730). For example, the inter encoder (730) can generate decoded blocks based on the decoded residue data and inter prediction information, and the intra encoder (722) can generate decoded blocks based on the decoded residue data and the intra prediction information. The decoded blocks are suitably processed to generate decoded pictures and the decoded pictures can be buffered in a memory circuit (not shown) and used as reference pictures in some examples.

The entropy encoder (725) is configured to format the bitstream to include the encoded block. The entropy encoder (725) is configured to include various information according to a suitable standard, such as HEVC standard. In an example, the entropy encoder (725) is configured to include the general control data, the selected prediction information (e.g., intra prediction information or inter prediction information), the residue information, and other suitable information in the bitstream. Note that, according to the disclosed subject matter, when coding a block in the merge submode of either inter mode or bi-prediction mode, there is no residue information.

FIG. 8 shows a diagram of a video decoder (810) according to another embodiment of the disclosure. The video decoder (810) is configured to receive a coded pictures that are part of a coded video sequence, and decode the coded picture to generate a reconstructed picture. In an example, the video decoder (810) is used in the place of the video decoder (410) in the FIG. 4 example.

In the FIG. 8 example, the video decoder (810) includes an entropy decoder (871), an inter decoder (880), a residue decoder (873), a reconstruction module (874), and an intra decoder (872) coupled together as shown in FIG. 8.

The entropy decoder (871) can be configured to reconstruct, from the coded picture, certain symbols that represent the syntax elements of which the coded picture is made up. Such symbols can include, for example, the mode in which a block is coded (such as, for example, intra, inter, b-predicted, the latter two in merge submode or another submode), prediction information (such as, for example, intra prediction information or inter prediction information) that can identify certain sample or metadata that is used for prediction by the intra decoder (872) or the inter decoder (880) respectively residual information in the form of, for example, quantized transform coefficients, and the like. In an example, when the prediction mode is inter or bi-predicted mode, the inter prediction information is provided to the inter decoder (880); and when the prediction type is the intra prediction type, the intra prediction information is provided to the intra decoder (872). The residual information can be subject to inverse quantization and is provided to the residue decoder (873).

The inter decoder (880) is configured to receive the inter prediction information, and generate inter prediction results based on the inter prediction information.

The intra decoder (872) is configured to receive the intra prediction information, and generate prediction results based on the intra prediction information.

The residue decoder (873) is configured to perform inverse quantization to extract de-quantized transform coefficients, and process the de-quantized transform coefficients to convert the residual from the frequency domain to the spatial domain. The residue decoder (873) may also require certain control information (to include the Quantizer Parameter QP), and that information may be provided by the entropy decoder (871) (datapath not depicted as this may be low volume control information only).

The reconstruction module (874) is configured to combine, in the spatial domain, the residual as output by the residue decoder (873) and the prediction results (as output by the inter or intra prediction modules as the case may be) to form a reconstructed block, that may be part of the reconstructed picture, which in turn may be part of the reconstructed video. It is noted that other suitable operations, such as a deblocking operation and the like, can be performed to improve the visual quality.

It is noted that the video encoders (403), (603) and (703), and the video decoders (410), (510) and (810) can be implemented using any suitable technique. In an embodiment, the video encoders (403), (603) and (703), and the video decoders (410), (510) and (810) can be implemented using one or more integrated circuits. In another embodiment, the video encoders (403), (603) and (603), and the video decoders (410), (510) and (810) can be implemented using one or more processors that execute software instructions.

Aspects of the disclosure provide techniques for intra picture block compensation with affine model in image and video coding.

Block based compensation can be used for inter prediction and intra prediction. For the inter prediction, block based compensation from a different picture is known as motion compensation. For intra prediction, block based compensation can also be done from a previously reconstructed area within the same picture. The block based compensation from reconstructed area within the same picture is referred to as intra picture block compensation, or intra block copy. A displacement vector that indicates the offset between the current block and the reference block in the same picture is referred to as a block vector (or BV for short). Different from a motion vector in motion compensation, which can be at any value (positive or negative, at either x or y direction), a block vector has a few constraints to ensure that the reference block is available and already reconstructed. Also, in some examples, for parallel processing consideration, some reference area that is tile boundary or wavefront ladder shape boundary is excluded.

The coding of a block vector could be either explicit or implicit. In the explicit mode, the difference between a block vector and its predictor is signaled; in the implicit mode, the block vector is recovered from a predictor (referred to as block vector predictor), in a similar way as a motion vector in merge mode. The resolution of a block vector, in some implementations, is restricted to integer positions; in other systems, the block vector is allowed to point to fractional positions.

In some examples, the use of intra block copy at block level, can be signaled using a reference index approach. The current picture under decoding is then treated as a reference picture. In an example, such a reference picture is put in the last position of a list of reference pictures. This special reference picture is also managed together with other temporal reference pictures in a buffer, such as decoded picture buffer (DPB).

There are also some variations for intra block copy, such as flipped intra block copy (the reference block is flipped horizontally or vertically before used to predict current block), or line based intra block copy (each compensation unit inside an MN coding block is an M1 or 1N line).

FIG. 9 shows an example of intra block copy according to an embodiment of the disclosure. Current picture (900) is under decoding. The current picture (900) includes a reconstructed area (910) (grey area) and to-be-decoded area (920) (white area). A current block (930) is under reconstruction a decoder. The current block (930) can be reconstructed from a reference block (940) that is in the reconstructed area (910). The position offset between the reference block (940) and the current block (930) is referred to as a block vector (950) (or BV (950)).

According to an aspect of the disclosure, affine motion compensation, for example by describing a 6-parameter (or a simplified 4-parameter) affine model for a coding block, can efficiently predict the motion information for samples within the current block. More specifically, in an affine coded or described coding block, different part of the samples can have different motion vectors. The basic unit to have a motion vector in an affine coded or described block is referred to as a sub-block. The size of a sub-block can be as small as 1 sample only; and can be as large as the size of current block.

When an affine mode is determined, for each sample in the current block, its motion vector (relative to the targeted reference picture) can be derived using such a model (e.g., 6 parameter affine model or 4 parameter affine model). In order to reduce implementation complexity, affine motion compensation is performed on a sub-block basis, instead of on a sample basis. That means, each sub-block will derive its motion vector and for samples in each sub-block, the motion vector is the same. A specific location of each sub-block is assumed, such as the top-left or the center point of the sub-block, to be the representative location. In one example, such a sub-block size contains 44 samples.

In general, an affine model has 6 parameters to describe the motion information of a block. After the affine transformation, a rectangular block will become a parallelogram. In an example, the 6 parameters of an affine coded block can be represented by 3 motion vectors at three different locations of the block.

FIG. 10 shows an example of a block (1000) with an affine model. The block (1000) uses motion vectors {right arrow over (v 0 )},{right arrow over (v 1 )}, and {right arrow over (v 2 )} at three corner locations A, B and C to describe the motion information of the affine model used for the block (1000). These locations A, B and C are referred to as control points.

In a simplified example, an affine model uses 4 parameters to describe the motion information of a block based on an assumption that after the affine transformation, the shape of the block does not change. Therefore, a rectangular block will remain a rectangular and same aspect ratio (e.g., height/width) after the transformation. The affine model of such a block can be represented by two motion vectors at two different locations, such as at corner locations A and B.

FIG. 11 shows examples of affine transformation for a 6-parameter affine mode (using 6-parameter affine model) and a 4-parameter affine mode (using 4-parameter affine model).

According to some aspects of the disclosure, affine models can be applied in the motion compensation where the reference picture is a previously coded (encoded/decoded) picture, and the affine models can be applied in the intra block copy mode (also referred to as intra picture block compensation). When performing intra picture block compensation, a reference block from the available reference area of the same picture will apply affine transformation before using as the predictor for a current coding block.

It is noted that various versions of affine models, such as 6-parameter, 4-parameter, scaling transformation, rotation transformation, and the like can be used in the intra picture block compensation.

In an embodiment, traditional affine model, such as the 6-parameter affine model, 4-parameter affine model, and the like is used in the intra block copy mode. In an embodiment, block vectors of different locations in the current block are signaled from the encoder side to the decoder side. For example, when 4-parameter affine model is used, at the encoder side, the encoder signals two block vectors from two different locations of the current block. At the decoder side, the decoder decodes the two block vectors from the received coded video bitstream, and then determines the 4-parameter affine model based on the two block vectors. Then, the decoder can use the 4-parameter affine model to reconstruct the current block. In some examples, constraints are setup, and the constraints ensure block vectors for all pixels of the current block to be valid (e.g., in the area that has been reconstructed in the current picture). A valid affine compensation for intra block copy should meet the constraints such that the block vectors for all pixels of the current block, either they are signaled or derived using the affine model, should all be valid.

In another embodiment, a simplified affine model for intra block copy that uses scaling is used in the intra block copy mode. For example, the transformation from a reference block to a current block only involves scaling, but no rotation or shape change. In this case, a block vector pointing to the reference block and a scaling factor are enough to determine the simplified affine model. In an example, at the encoder side, the encoder signals one block vector from a location of the current block and a scaling factor. At the decoder side, the decoder decodes the block vector and the scaling factor from the received coded video bitstream, and then determines the simplified affine model with scaling based on the block vector and the scaling factor. Then, the decoder can use the simplified affine model with scaling to reconstruct the current block.

FIG. 12 shows an example of a simplified affine model of scaling in the intra block copy mode. When scaling is applied, the relative size change from a reference block to a current block is reflected by the scaling factor. In an example, a scaling factor of 2 means the reference block is twice as large in (both x, and y respectively) dimension as the current block.

It is noted that in some examples, the simplified affine model of scaling uses two different scaling factors respectively for x dimension and y dimension.

In another embodiment, a simplified affine model for intra block copy that uses rotation is used in the intra block copy mode. For example, the transformation from a reference block to a current block only involves rotation, but no scaling or shape change. In this case, a block vector pointing to the reference block and a rotation factor (e.g., rotation angle, rotation degree) can be used to determine the simplified affine model. In an example, at the encoder side, the encoder signals one block vector from a location of the current block and a rotation angle. At the decoder side, the decoder decodes the block vector and the rotation angle from the received coded video bitstream, and then determines the simplified affine model with rotation based on the block vector and the rotation angle. Then, the decoder can use the simplified affine model with rotation to reconstruct the current block.

FIG. 13 shows an example of a simplified affine model of rotation in the intra block copy mode. When rotation is applied, a relative rotation angle from a reference block to a current block is reflected by the rotation factor. In an example, a rotation factor of 45 anti-clockwise means that the reference block is oriented 45 anti-clockwise to the current block.

In some examples, an affine model can be determined by a block vector, a scaling factor and a rotation factor.

In some embodiments, when an affine model is used, for a pixel in the current block, a reference location in the reference block can be determined based on the affine model. The reference location for the pixel in the current block may be in between two integer pixels. Various techniques can be used to determine a reference pixel when the reference location is between two inter pixels.

In an embodiment, an interpolation filter is used in a similar manner as in the motion compensation process. In an example, the interpolation filter used in the intra block copy mode is the one used in the motion compensation, for example an interpolation filter according to video coding standards such as in H.264/AVC, H.265/HEVC, etc. Thus, no separate interpolation filter design is needed for inter-picture motion compensation and intra block copy.

In another embodiment, a bi-linear filter is used in the intra block copy mode. The bi-linear filter is used to generate a fractional reference pixel (a reference pixel at a fractional-pixel location, a reference pixel between integer reference pixels) in between integer pixels (pixels at integer-pixel location).

In another embodiment, the fractional pixel position is rounded to the nearest integer pixel position, and the pixel at the integer pixel position is used as the reference pixel.

It is noted that other suitable interpolation filters can be used to generate the reference pixel based on neighboring integer pixels.

In an embodiment, in the intra block copy mode when an affine model is used, for each pixel in the current block, an individual block vector is calculated according to the affine model. In another embodiment, a smallest compensation unit is defined as MN (samples), and the pixels in the MN block (smallest compensation unit) share the same block vector. M, N here are integer numbers. In an example, M and N are both 4 for the smallest compensation unit.

In an embodiment, the block vector of the top left location in the smallest compensation unit is calculated according to the affine model, and then the block vector of the top left location is used as the common block vector for all pixels in the MN block (smallest compensation unit).

In another embodiment, the block vector of the center location in the smallest compensation unit is calculated according to the affine model, and then the block vector of the center location is used as the common block vector for all pixels in the MN block (smallest compensation unit).

In another embodiment, the block vector of the bottom right location in the smallest compensation unit is calculated according to the affine model, and then the block vector of the bottom right is used as the common block vector for all pixels in the MN block (smallest compensation unit).

According to an aspect of the disclosure, various signaling techniques can be used in the affine coded intra block copy mode to improve coding efficiency.

In an embodiment, a scaling factor can be coded using a quantized version to reduce signaling cost. Table 1 shows an example of a mapping relationship between indexes and the corresponding scaling factor values. It is noted that other suitable mapping relationship between indexes and scaling factor values can be used. In an example, at the encoder side, the encoding determines a scaling factor value and determines an index for the scaling factor value according to the mapping relationship. Then, the encoder signals the index in a coded video bitstream; and at the decoder side, the decoder decodes the index from the coded video bitstream. Further, the decoder can determine the scaling factor value corresponding to the index according to the mapping relationship between indexes and scaling factor values.

TABLE 1Example of semantics of indexes according to a mapping relationshipbetween indexes and scaling factor valuesIndex0123Scaling Factor24

In the Table 1 example, a scaling factor of 2 means the block size of the reference block is 2 times as large as the current block (in both x and y directions). Therefore, in an example, before used to predict the current block, the reference block should be scaled down by a factor of 2.

In an embodiment, a rotation factor can be coded using a quantized version to reduce signaling cost. Table 2 shows an example of a mapping relationship between indexes and the corresponding rotation factor values (rotation angle degrees). It is noted that other suitable mapping relationship between indexes and rotation factor values can be used. In an example, at the encoder side, the encoding determines a rotation factor value and determines an index for the rotation factor value according to the mapping relationship. Then, the encoder signals the index in a coded video bitstream; and at the decoder side, the decoder decodes the index from the coded video bitstream. Further, the decoder can determine the rotation factor value corresponding to the index according to the mapping relationship between indexes and rotation factor values.

TABLE 2Example of semantics of indexes according to a mapping relationshipbetween indexes and rotation factor valuesIndex0123Rotation factor45459090

In the Table 2 example, a rotation factor of 45 means the orientation of the reference block is 45 to the anti-clockwise direction as compared to the current block. Therefore before used to predict the current block, the reference block should be rotated 45 clockwise. Similarly, a rotation factor of 45 degree means the orientation of the reference block is 45 to the clockwise direction as compared to the current block.

According to an aspect of the disclosure, an image or video coding system can use translational model to code some blocks and use affine model to code some other blocks. In an embodiment, a block level switch is implemented to switch between different models in order to utilize the benefits from possible models at high flexibility.

In an embodiment, when the current block is coded using intra block copy mode, a block vector of the current block is signaled by default. Further, a flag is used to signal whether the current block is coded using an affine model or not. When the flag is indicative of using the affine model, another one or two block vectors from different locations of the current block, according to the affine model, is signaled in the coded video bitstream in an example.

In another embodiment, when the current block is coded using intra block copy mode, a block vector of the current block is signaled by default. Further, a flag is used to signal whether the current block is scaled as compared to the reference block or not. When the flag is indicative of the current block being scaled as compared to the reference block, an index corresponding to a scaling factor (e.g., according to Table 1) is signaled in the coded video bitstream in an example.

In another embodiment, when the current block is coded using intra block copy mode, a block vector of the current block is signaled by default. Further, a flag is used to signal whether the current block is rotated as compared to the reference block or not. When the flag is indicative of the current block being rotated as compared to the reference block, an index corresponding to a rotation factor value (e.g., according to Table 2) is signaled in the coded video bitstream in an example.

In another embodiment, when the current block is coded using intra block copy mode, a block vector of the current block is signaled by default. Further, a flag is used to signal whether the current block has any scaling or rotation as compared to the reference block or not. When the flag is indicative of scaling and/or rotation of the current block as compared to the reference block, the scaling and/or rotation factors are signals in the formed of corresponding indices in an example.

According to some aspects of the disclosure, the affine model related parameters (such as 4-parameters or 6-parameters, rotation factor or scaling factor) for the intra block copy mode can also be predictively coded.

In an embodiment, parameter(s) (such as 4-parameters or 6-parameters, rotation factor or scaling factor) for a current block is(are) predicted from one of the neighboring blocks that are coded in the intra block copy mode, in a similar manner as the merge mode. In an example, no residue (parameter residue) of the prediction error is signaled. In another example, the residue (parameter residue) of the prediction error is signaled in the coded video bitstream.

In another embodiment, parameter(s) (such as 4-parameters or 6-parameters, rotation factor or scaling factor) for the current block is(are) predicted from one of the previously coded, spatially far away blocks in intra block copy mode, in a similar manner as the merge mode. In an example, no residue (parameter residue) of the prediction error is signaled. In another example, the residue (parameter residue) of the prediction error is signaled in the coded video bitstream. It is noted that the previously coded blocks are not required to be spatially close to the current block.

In another embodiment, parameter(s) (such as 4-parameters or 6-parameters, rotation factor or scaling factor) for the current block is(are) predicted from one of the previously coded blocks in intra block copy mode, in a similar manner as the merge mode. In an example, no residue (parameter residue) of the prediction error is signaled. In another example, the residue (parameter residue) of the prediction error is signaled in the coded video bitstream. In this embodiment, the candidate blocks (previously coded blocks) are not spatially connected to the current block. Instead, the candidate blocks are chosen with a specific distance to the current block. For example, candidate blocks are located with N samples (distance) from the top of the current block or N samples (distance) from the left of the current block. N is an integer number such as 16.

FIG. 14 shows a flow chart outlining a process (1400) according to an embodiment of the disclosure. The process (1400) can be used in the reconstruction of a block coded in intra mode, so to generate a prediction block for the block under reconstruction. In various embodiments, the process (1400) are executed by processing circuitry, such as the processing circuitry in the terminal devices (310), (320), (330) and (340), the processing circuitry that performs functions of the video encoder (403), the processing circuitry that performs functions of the video decoder (410), the processing circuitry that performs functions of the video decoder (510), the processing circuitry that performs functions of the intra prediction module (552), the processing circuitry that performs functions of the video encoder (603), the processing circuitry that performs functions of the predictor (635), the processing circuitry that performs functions of the intra encoder (722), the processing circuitry that performs functions of the intra decoder (872), and the like. In some embodiments, the process (1400) is implemented in software instructions, thus when the processing circuitry executes the software instructions, the processing circuitry performs the process (1400). The process starts at (S1401) and proceeds to (S1410).

At (S1410), prediction information of a block in a current picture is decoded from a coded video bitstream. The prediction information is indicative of using an affine model in an intra block copy mode.

At (S1420), parameters of the affine model are determined. The affine model is used to transform between the block and a reference block in a region of the current picture that has been reconstructed.

At (S1430), samples of the block are reconstructed according to the affine model. In an example, a reference pixel in the region of the current picture that has been reconstructed is determined to correspond to a pixel in the block according to the affine model. Further, the pixel in the block is reconstructed according to the reference pixel. Then, the process proceeds to (S1499) and terminates.

The techniques described above, can be implemented as computer software using computer-readable instructions and physically stored in one or more computer-readable media. For example, FIG. 15 shows a computer system (1500) suitable for implementing certain embodiments of the disclosed subject matter.

The computer software can be coded using any suitable machine code or computer language, that may be subject to assembly, compilation, linking, or like mechanisms to create code comprising instructions that can be executed directly, or through interpretation, micro-code execution, and the like, by one or more computer central processing units (CPUs), Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), and the like.

The instructions can be executed on various types of computers or components thereof, including, for example, personal computers, tablet computers, servers, smartphones, gaming devices, internet of things devices, and the like.

The components shown in FIG. 15 for computer system (1500) are exemplary in nature and are not intended to suggest any limitation as to the scope of use or functionality of the computer software implementing embodiments of the present disclosure. Neither should the configuration of components be interpreted as having any dependency or requirement relating to any one or combination of components illustrated in the exemplary embodiment of a computer system (1500).

Computer system (1500) may include certain human interface input devices. Such a human interface input device may be responsive to input by one or more human users through, for example, tactile input (such as: keystrokes, swipes, data glove movements), audio input (such as: voice, clapping), visual input (such as: gestures), olfactory input (not depicted). The human interface devices can also be used to capture certain media not necessarily directly related to conscious input by a human, such as audio (such as: speech, music, ambient sound), images (such as: scanned images, photographic images obtain from a still image camera), video (such as two-dimensional video, three-dimensional video including stereoscopic video).

Input human interface devices may include one or more of (only one of each depicted): keyboard (1501), mouse (1502), trackpad (1503), touch screen (1510), data-glove (not shown), joystick (1505), microphone (1506), scanner (1507), camera (1508).

Computer system (1500) may also include certain human interface output devices. Such human interface output devices may be stimulating the senses of one or more human users through, for example, tactile output, sound, light, and smell/taste. Such human interface output devices may include tactile output devices (for example tactile feedback by the touch-screen (1510), data-glove (not shown), or joystick (1505), but there can also be tactile feedback devices that do not serve as input devices), audio output devices (such as: speakers (1509), headphones (not depicted)), visual output devices (such as screens (1510) to include CRT screens, LCD screens, plasma screens, OLED screens, each with or without touch-screen input capability, each with or without tactile feedback capabilitysome of which may be capable to output two dimensional visual output or more than three dimensional output through means such as stereographic output; virtual-reality glasses (not depicted), holographic displays and smoke tanks (not depicted)), and printers (not depicted).

Computer system (1500) can also include human accessible storage devices and their associated media such as optical media including CD/DVD ROM/RW (1520) with CD/DVD or the like media (1521), thumb-drive (1522), removable hard drive or solid state drive (1523), legacy magnetic media such as tape and floppy disc (not depicted), specialized ROM/ASIC/PLD based devices such as security dongles (not depicted), and the like.

Those skilled in the art should also understand that term computer readable media as used in connection with the presently disclosed subject matter does not encompass transmission media, carrier waves, or other transitory signals.

Computer system (1500) can also include an interface to one or more communication networks. Networks can for example be wireless, wireline, optical. Networks can further be local, wide-area, metropolitan, vehicular and industrial, real-time, delay-tolerant, and so on. Examples of networks include local area networks such as Ethernet, wireless LANs, cellular networks to include GSM, 3G, 4G, 5G, LTE and the like, TV wireline or wireless wide area digital networks to include cable TV, satellite TV, and terrestrial broadcast TV, vehicular and industrial to include CANBus, and so forth. Certain networks commonly require external network interface adapters that attached to certain general purpose data ports or peripheral buses (1549) (such as, for example USB ports of the computer system (1500)); others are commonly integrated into the core of the computer system (1500) by attachment to a system bus as described below (for example Ethernet interface into a PC computer system or cellular network interface into a smartphone computer system). Using any of these networks, computer system (1500) can communicate with other entities. Such communication can be uni-directional, receive only (for example, broadcast TV), uni-directional send-only (for example CANbus to certain CANbus devices), or bi-directional, for example to other computer systems using local or wide area digital networks. Certain protocols and protocol stacks can be used on each of those networks and network interfaces as described above.

Aforementioned human interface devices, human-accessible storage devices, and network interfaces can be attached to a core (1540) of the computer system (1500).

The core (1540) can include one or more Central Processing Units (CPU) (1541), Graphics Processing Units (GPU) (1542), specialized programmable processing units in the form of Field Programmable Gate Areas (FPGA) (1543), hardware accelerators for certain tasks (1544), and so forth. These devices, along with Read-only memory (ROM) (1545), Random-access memory (1546), internal mass storage such as internal non-user accessible hard drives, SSDs, and the like (1547), may be connected through a system bus (1548). In some computer systems, the system bus (1548) can be accessible in the form of one or more physical plugs to enable extensions by additional CPUs, GPU, and the like. The peripheral devices can be attached either directly to the core's system bus (1548), or through a peripheral bus (1549). Architectures for a peripheral bus include PCI, USB, and the like.

CPUs (1541), GPUs (1542), FPGAs (1543), and accelerators (1544) can execute certain instructions that, in combination, can make up the aforementioned computer code. That computer code can be stored in ROM (1545) or RAM (1546). Transitional data can be also stored in RAM (1546), whereas permanent data can be stored for example, in the internal mass storage (1547). Fast storage and retrieve to any of the memory devices can be enabled through the use of cache memory, that can be closely associated with one or more CPU (1541), GPU (1542), mass storage (1547), ROM (1545), RAM (1546), and the like.

The computer readable media can have computer code thereon for performing various computer-implemented operations. The media and computer code can be those specially designed and constructed for the purposes of the present disclosure, or they can be of the kind well known and available to those having skill in the computer software arts.

As an example and not by way of limitation, the computer system having architecture (1500), and specifically the core (1540) can provide functionality as a result of processor(s) (including CPUs, GPUs, FPGA, accelerators, and the like) executing software embodied in one or more tangible, computer-readable media. Such computer-readable media can be media associated with user-accessible mass storage as introduced above, as well as certain storage of the core (1540) that are of non-transitory nature, such as core-internal mass storage (1547) or ROM (1545). The software implementing various embodiments of the present disclosure can be stored in such devices and executed by core (1540). A computer-readable medium can include one or more memory devices or chips, according to particular needs. The software can cause the core (1540) and specifically the processors therein (including CPU, GPU, FPGA, and the like) to execute particular processes or particular parts of particular processes described herein, including defining data structures stored in RAM (1546) and modifying such data structures according to the processes defined by the software. In addition or as an alternative, the computer system can provide functionality as a result of logic hardwired or otherwise embodied in a circuit (for example: accelerator (1544)), which can operate in place of or together with software to execute particular processes or particular parts of particular processes described herein. Reference to software can encompass logic, and vice versa, where appropriate. Reference to a computer-readable media can encompass a circuit (such as an integrated circuit (IC)) storing software for execution, a circuit embodying logic for execution, or both, where appropriate. The present disclosure encompasses any suitable combination of hardware and software.

Appendix A: Acronyms JEM: joint exploration modelVVC: versatile video codingBMS: benchmark setMV: Motion VectorHEVC: High Efficiency Video CodingSEI: Supplementary Enhancement InformationVUI: Video Usability InformationGOPs: Groups of PicturesTUs: Transform Units,PUs: Prediction UnitsCTUs: Coding Tree UnitsCTBs: Coding Tree BlocksPBs: Prediction BlocksHRD: Hypothetical Reference DecoderSNR: Signal Noise RatioCPUs: Central Processing UnitsGPUs: Graphics Processing UnitsCRT: Cathode Ray TubeLCD: Liquid-Crystal DisplayOLED: Organic Light-Emitting DiodeCD: Compact DiscDVD: Digital Video DiscROM: Read-Only MemoryRAM: Random Access MemoryASIC: Application-Specific Integrated CircuitPLD: Programmable Logic DeviceLAN: Local Area NetworkGSM: Global System for Mobile communicationsLTE: Long-Term EvolutionCANBus: Controller Area Network BusUSB: Universal Serial BusPCI: Peripheral Component InterconnectFPGA: Field Programmable Gate AreasSSD: solid-state driveIC: Integrated CircuitCU: Coding Unit

While this disclosure has described several exemplary embodiments, there are alterations, permutations, and various substitute equivalents, which fall within the scope of the disclosure. It will thus be appreciated that those skilled in the art will be able to devise numerous systems and methods which, although not explicitly shown or described herein, embody the principles of the disclosure and are thus within the spirit and scope thereof.