WATER STABLE ANTIMICROBIAL SILANOL QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS

Abstract:

A method of stabilizing aqueous solutions of antimicrobial silanol quaternary ammonium compounds (SQACs) from premature polymerization where the stabilizing agent is selected from a list of antimicrobial, naturally occurring, renewable, volatile, liquid phytochemical essential oils that easily form crystal clear microemulsions when water is added to the concentrated SQAC/essential oil mixture. These non-foaming oil-in-water microemulsions have excellent long term storage stability, remain very low in viscosity and do not phase or precipitate for many months. Many essential oils found to be useful in this process are non-toxic food additives having pleasant scents, have low flammability yet are volatile enough to evaporate upon cure down of the SQAC, resulting in a higher concentration of SQAC in the cured, antimicrobial film. Economically shippable concentrations of stabilized SQACs can be further diluted with water to application concentrations without losing any stabilizing properties and remain storage stable at these lower concentrations indefinitely.


Publication Number: US20180213792

Publication Date: 2018-08-02

Application Number: 15938671

Applicant Date: 2018-03-28

International Class:

    A01N 55/00

    A01N 65/36

    A01N 65/28

    A01N 25/04

    A01N 65/06

    A01N 25/22

    A01N 65/22

Inventors: Joseph E. Mason Dennis Victor Neigel

Inventors Address: Belews Creek,NC,US Salisbury,NC,US

Applicators: Mason Neigel

Applicators Address: seph E. nnis Victor

Assignee:


Claims:

1. A stabilized aqueous solution of silanol quaternary ammonium compound (SQAC) resistant to premature polymerization comprising:a mixture formed from an anhydrous SQAC defined as 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl-N-octadecyl-N,N-dimethyl ammonium chloride and an essential oil selected from the group consisting of cedarwood oil, pine tree oil, and mixtures thereof; anda balance of demineralized water to a desired aqueous concentration.

2. The stabilized aqueous solution of claim 1 wherein the anhydrous SQAC is between about 0.1 wt. % and about 10 wt. % of the mixture.

3. The stabilized aqueous solution of claim 1 wherein the anhydrous SQAC is between about 0.1 wt. % and about 1 wt. % of the mixture.

4. The stabilized aqueous solution of claim 1 wherein the anhydrous SQAC is greater than about 0.2 wt. % of the mixture.

5. The stabilized aqueous solution of claim 1 wherein the ratio of a weight of the essential oil to the weight of the anhydrous SQAC is greater than about 0.15.

6. The stabilized aqueous solution of claim 1 wherein the ratio of a weight of the essential oil to the weight of the SQAC is between about 0.2 and about 0.5.

7. The stabilized aqueous solution of claim 1 wherein the ratio of a weight of the essential oil to the weight of the anhydrous SQAC is about 0.3.

8. The stabilized aqueous solution of claim 1 further comprising a reaction medium, wherein the reaction medium is a volatile organic reaction medium.

9. The stabilized aqueous solution of claim 8 wherein the volatile organic reaction medium is selected from a group consisting of aliphatic compounds.

10. The stabilized aqueous solution of claim 8 wherein the volatile organic reaction medium is an alcohol.

11. A method of stabilizing the aqueous solution of SQAC in claim 1 from premature polymerization comprising:mixing an anhydrous SQAC defined as 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl-N-octadecyl-N,N-dimethyl ammonium chloride and an essential oil selected from the group consisting of cedarwood oil, pine tree oil, and mixtures thereof, to form a mixture,diluting the mixture to a desired aqueous concentration with demineralized water, andproducing a stable and clear oil-in-water microemulsion that provides long-term stabilization from unwanted polymerization.

12. The method of claim 11 wherein the step of diluting the mixture with demineralized water further comprises diluting the mixture with a volume of water sufficient to produce an oil-in-water microemulsion containing six to ten percent (6-10%) by weight anhydrous SQAC.

13. The method of claim 11 wherein the step of diluting the mixture with demineralized water further comprises diluting the mixture with a volume of water sufficient to produce an oil-in-water microemulsion containing a tenth to six percent (0.1-6.0%) SQAC by weight.

14. The method of claim 11 wherein the step of mixing SQAC with the essential oil further includes defining a weight the essential oil as five to forty percent (5-40%) by weight when compared to a weight of SQAC included in the mixture.

15. The method of claim 11 wherein the step of mixing SQAC with the essential oil further includes defining a weight of the essential oil as twenty-five to thirty-five percent (25-35%) by weight when compared to a weight (wt/wt) of SQAC present in the mixture.

16. The method of claim 11 wherein the step of producing an oil-in-water microemulsion further comprises producing a stable and clear oil-in-water microemulsion with six percent (6%) SQAC by weight and one and four fifths percent (1.8%) the essential oil by weight, that provides long-term stabilization from unwanted polymerization.

17. The method of claim 16 wherein long-term stabilization is defined as three years at twenty-five degrees Centigrade (25 C.) without viscosity increase or precipitation.

Descriptions:

This is a continuation of and claims benefits under pending prior application Ser. No. 15/453,108 filed 8 Mar. 2017, now U.S. Pat. No. ______ which is a continuation of and claims benefits under pending prior application Ser. No. 14/680,689, filed 7 Apr. 2015, now U.S. Pat. No. 9,624,384, each of which are incorporated by reference in their entireties herein.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to antimicrobial silanol quaternary ammonium compounds (SQACs) and a method for controlling the viscosity stability of aqueous dilutions of SQACs using naturally derived, renewable, volatile, phytochemical essential oils.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PRIOR ART AND OBJECTIVES OF THE INVENTION

A biocide is any substance that kills microorganisms such as bacteria, molds, algae, fungi or viruses. A biostatic is any substance that inhibits the growth of these organisms. The collective group is called antimicrobials. People have been utilizing antimicrobials, commonly called preservatives, since they first discovered a need to extend the useful life of their food as well as their possessions. Sea salt may have been the first antimicrobial used to preserve food. The mummification techniques employed by early Egyptians used to preserve the human and animal body used salts and a variety of resins. These preservatives were thought to possess magical powers, as well as the ability to install qualities of eternal life.

The existence of microorganisms in nature was discovered in the late 1600s with the invention of the microscope. As early as 1705, mercuric chloride was used to preserve ships' planking against shipworm. It was not until the 19th century discoveries by Pasteur, Gram and others that the causative agents of microbiological deterioration were understood, although use of antimicrobials in a cause and effect relationship with microorganisms is still less than a century old.

Certain silanol quaternary ammonium compounds (SQACs) possess bacteriostatic, fungistatic and algaestatic and/or bactericidal, fungicidal and algaecidal properties. For example, 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl octadecyldimethyl ammonium chloride is a commercial antimicrobial product marketed by Dow Corning as BIOGUARD Q 9-5700. A number of other organosilicon amines and salts also exhibit antimicrobial activity.

Reactive silanols are able to bond with a variety of target surfaces because they form a covalent bond with any surface containing oxygen, nitrogen or carbon in any form. For example, hydroxides or oxides on the surfaces of metals (including stainless steel) will form a durable bond. In addition, silanol groups will homopolymerize via a condensation mechanism to form a durable, 3 dimensional crosslinked polymer matrix. Reactive silanols are therefore able to bond with surfaces such as plastic, metal, fabric, tile, masonry, vinyl, wood, painted surfaces and human skin.

When silanols are modified with biocidal adjuncts in the form of alkyl quaternary ammonium groups, and the silanols are fixed onto a surface, the active biocidal sites become fixed too. The films created are extremely thin, between 15 nm and 180 nm, and therefore the original physical properties of the surface are little affected.

Silanols having biocidal adjuncts typically exhibit a mechanism of action whereby bacteria arriving on a treated surface will assimilate the biocidal adjunct's hydrocarbon, and the positively charged nitrogen atom will affect the electrical equilibrium of the cell. More specifically, the nitrogen atom disrupts the porin channels and/or outer protein layers, causing cell death.

The fixed nature of the biocide is important where toxicity, taint and other organoleptic aspects are of concern. This bactericidal surface treatment is not removed by normal cleaning procedures. In fact, it is important to maintain the normal cleaning regime in order to refresh the biocidal surface. The thinness of the film enables application in areas where optical properties are important such as treatment of contact lenses. Silanols with biocidal adjuncts have been used in the treatment of bed sheets, hospital garments, curtains, floor and wall materials, air filtration systems, medical devices, bandages, surgical instruments and implants, and to prevent biofilm growth on catheters, stints, contact lenses and endotracheal tubes.

Based toxicity information, the EPA concluded that there are no endpoints of concern for repeated oral or dermal exposure to the trimethoxysilyl quats. This conclusion was based on low toxicity observed in acute, subchronic and developmental studies conducted with the trimethoxysilyl quat compounds. They further concluded that there are no concerns for carcinogenicity for the trimethoxysilyl quats based on the results of the mutagenicity studies and the lack of any systemic toxicity in the toxicity database.

Based on hydrolysis data, the EPA has concluded that trimethoxysilyl quats are soluble but not stable in water. They stated that due the instability of the compounds and their formation of an insoluble silane degradate, that the trimethoxysilyl quats are not expected to contaminate surface or ground water due to rapid degradation by hydrolysis.

While aqueous SQACs have a tremendous amount of potential as antimicrobials, there are significant shortcomings. They are very unstable and have a short shelf life. For example, premature sedimentation of polysilsesquioxane-type polymers occurs in even low aqueous concentrations. Also, premature polymerization causes unwanted solution viscosity, thereby complicating conventional coating methods.

A variety of strategies have been employed in order to extend the storage life of aqueous SQACs. Examples include introducing surfactant additives, to coordinate the free silanol ends with stabilizers such as simple sugars and other multiple hydroxyl group molecules; coordinating and associating said quaternary organosilane hydrolysates with hydrophilic polymers; incorporating non-aqueous solvents such as the toxic methanol and methyl or butyl cellosolve; using alternative aqueous/organic systems; and combinations thereof. In some cases, pH adjustments have been used to maximize the benefits imparted by a stabilizer. These strategies all have shortcomings including undesirably creating toxicity and cost.

It is desirable that the aqueous medium contains additives and components that eliminate or decrease the premature homopolymerization of the hydrolyzed silanol groups, thereby increasing storage stability. It is desirable that the aqueous medium contains additives and components that eliminate or decrease unwanted increases in viscosity arising from premature homopolymerization. It is desirable that the aqueous medium contains additives and components that eliminate or decrease unwanted precipitation arising from premature homopolymerization. It is also desirable that the aqueous medium contains additives and components that impart a pleasant scent, maintain solution clarity, improve performance of the underlying SQAC, and protect the composition against aqueous mold growth. It is desirable that the additives will evaporate completely during the coating and curing operation, thus allowing the generation of a high degree of homopolymer crosslinking of the silanol groups, thereby providing a highly water and solvent insoluble coating on the substrate. It is desirable that the additives are not hydrophilic and that they do not alter the cationic charge density of the SQAC. It is also desirable that the additives and components are environmentally friendly.

In short, it is desirable to employ SQAC stabilizers having the following characteristics: 1) Low Toxicity; 2) Low Flammability; 3) Excellent stabilization of aqueous SQACs; 4) Pleasant scent; 5) Volatility (little or no incorporation of the stabilizer into the cured film); 6) Antimicrobial Activity; and 7) Obtained from a renewable resource.

Unexpectedly, a unique group of volatile essential oil stabilizers has been discovered that satisfies all 7 of the above attributes needed to correct the shortcomings of previous inventions of this type. These unique stabilizers are certain naturally derived, renewable, volatile, phytochemical essential oils (essential means having an essence) that have been proven to possess low toxicity, low flammability, excellent stabilization of aqueous SQACs, pleasant scent, good volatility, and demonstrate antimicrobial activity of their own.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

This invention is a method of stabilizing aqueous solutions of antimicrobial silanol quaternary ammonium compounds (SQACs) where the stabilizing agent is chosen from the collective group of volatile essential oils that are commonly obtained by steam distillation or cold pressing of stems, bark, leaves, fruit, peels and flowers of various plants species throughout the world. Some of the preferred essential oils used in the instant invention are derived from leaves that are edible herbs. Other preferred essential oils are extracted from the peels of citrus fruits that are used as flavorings for food and beverages. This source of these stabilizing agents is plentiful, renewable and generally considered to have low toxicity to humans and animals. The method process of this invention teaches the manufacture of crystal clear, water stabilized SQAC microemulsions that show little or no sign of 2nd degree homopolymerization (viscosity increase) of 3rd degree homopolymerization (polymer precipitation) when aged at room temperature for several months at SQAC assays that allow for good transportation economics and excellent utility in use when further diluted.

These and other aspects of the present inventions will become apparent to those skilled in the art after a reading of the following description of the preferred embodiment when considered with the drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGSFIG. 1 is a graphical representation of the expected overall stability effectiveness of antimicrobial compositions prepared according to the present invention as a function of the concentration of volatile essential oil and the concentration of silanol quaternary ammonium compound in water;FIG. 2 illustrates the turbidity due to precipitation of insoluble SQAC polymer of various SQAC/essential oil microemulsions compared to a composition having no essential oil;FIG. 3 illustrates the viscosity of various SQAC/essential oil microemulsions compared to a composition having no essential oil;FIG. 4 demonstrates the viscosity of SQAC/Tea Tree Oil microemulsions over time compared to a composition having no Tea Tree Oil;FIG. 5 demonstrates the viscosity of SQAC/Thyme Essential Oil microemulsions over time compared to a composition having no Thyme Essential Oil;FIG. 6 demonstrates the viscosity of the same concentration of SQAC/peppermint essential oil at two different pHs; andFIG. 7 depicts the aqueous stability of both a 0.75% and a 6.0% solution of SQAC as a function of ratio of volatile botanical to SQAC.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT AND OPERATION OF THE INVENTION

In the following description, like reference characters designate like or corresponding parts throughout the several views. Also in the following description, it is to be understood that such terms as forward, rearward, left, right, upwardly, downwardly, and the like are words of convenience and are not to be construed as limiting terms.

As used herein, the following terms apply:

Botanical or Phytochemical is a substance derived from a plant, such as an essential oil.

Stable shall mean no phase separation, precipitation, turbidity values of 40 NTU and viscosity of 50 cPs at 6% active SQAC in water for at least 3 months at 25 C.

SQAC is a silanol quaternary ammonium compound. Preferred examples discussed herein are designated as SQAC #1-3.

SQAC #1 is 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl-N-octadecyl-N,N-dimethyl ammonium chloride.

SQAC #2 is 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl-N-tetradecyl-N,N-dimethyl ammonium chloride.

SQAC #3 is 3-(trihydroxysilyl) propyl-N-octadecyl-N,N-dimethyl ammonium chloride.

SQAC #1 is commercially available from lndusco, Ltd located in Greensboro, N.C. as Bioshield 7200 and sold as a concentrated solution of the active ingredient in anhydrous methanol. A similar product is available from both Dow Corning and Microban International and others. Of the three selected SQAC compounds, SQAC #1 is one acceptable compound for demonstrating the process of these inventions due to its high sales volume and popularity of use as an antimicrobial coating on a myriad of substrates.

The processes of the present invention produce novel, crystal clear, viscosity stable, oil-in-water microemulsions using SQACs, phytochemical essential oils, and distilled or deionized water. Compositions of the present invention are considered stable in water. Microemulsion technology has been in existence for many years. In fact, many commercial microemulsion products are found in the marketplace including floor polishes and cleaners, personal care products, pesticide delivery systems, cutting oils and drug delivery systems. Microemulsions are crystal clear because the micellar particle size is too small to scatter visible light. The IUPAC definition of microemulsion is a dispersion of water, oil and surfactant(s) that is an isotropic and thermodynamically stable system with dispersed domain diameter varying approximately from 1 to 100 nm, usually 10 to 50 nm. The aqueous phase may contain salts or other ingredients such as polar solvents, and the oil may be a complex mixture of organic compounds. In contrast to ordinary, white macroemulsions that usually require high shear conditions to form, microemulsions form upon simple mixing of the components, without the need for high-energy homogenization. Also, microemulsions of the present inventions are stable against phase separation.

SQAC is an active ingredient that produces durable antimicrobial films when cured. Unexpectedly, SQAC is able to form a microemulsion with phytochemical essential oils without any need for additional surfactants or organic solvents. Such microemulsions need only standard mixing requirements such as those found in low speed mixing vessels, not high shear equipment such as various types of high speed or high-pressure homogenizers. These microemulsions have been developed on lab scale using only the shear of low speed magnetic stirring bar mixing.

It has also been found according to the present invention that when preparing these microemulsions, order of addition is quite important. The SQAC is first to be added to the mixing vessel as a concentrated solution in the reaction solvent, followed by adding the essential oil, which dissolves in the concentrated SQAC to form a low viscosity, easily mixable, clear solution. The addition of the essential oil will lower the temperature at which partial insolubility of the SQAC occurs, similarly to what would be expected if more reaction solvent was added. Mixtures of SQAC and essential oil have been stored at room temperature for several months and show no signs of precipitation, loss of activity, color change or their ability to form microemulsions when water is mixed in.

To accomplish the processes of making a crystal clear, viscosity stable emulsion, the distilled or deionized water is added to the SQAC/essential oil solution under moderate agitation. Depending upon the type of SQAC and essential oil being used, the applicants did also discover that water heated above room temperature produces clear microemulsions more quickly. However, choosing a process water temperature depends in part on the boiling point of the SQAC/essential oil/polar solvent mixture being treated based on safety considerations.

The rate of water addition also has been found by the applicant to be dependent upon the components being used. Some systems allow water addition rates as rapid as less than one minute, while other systems require a water addition rate that will maintain a clear microemulsion mixing in the vessel. Microemulsion systems will maintain this clear appearance throughout the water addition process. This is one embodiment for carrying out the process of these inventions. If any turbidity of the mixing vessel contents occurs, there is a good chance a microemulsion will not be formed to completion resulting in less than crystal clarity of the final dispersion. Cloudy microemulsions may be repaired to form clear microemulsions by post heating the fully diluted microemulsion, then stopping the agitation and allowing the microemulsion to slowly cool to room temperature.

Although most of the aging stability studies were performed on economically shippable SQAC concentrations of 6% to 8% (active basis), further dilution with water produced crystal clear, stable microemulsions all the way down to application strength of 0.1% to 5.9% (active basis) SQAC concentrations. Stability against precipitation remained excellent through this entire dilution range.

The present invention can best be understood after a review of the following examples:

Example 1

Into an 8 oz. glass jar was weighed 16.67 g of Bioshield 7200 (72% active SQAC) followed by 3.60 g of tea tree essential oil and stirred on a magnetic stirring plate until the two components were clear and uniform (1 min). With continued moderate stirring, 179.73 g of distilled water at a temperature of 35 C to 45 C was rapidly poured into the jar. Stirring was continued as the transparent concentrate slowly dissolved in the water to thin a crystal clear microemulsion of tea tree oil in a 6.0% active Bioshield continuous phase. Brookfield viscosity of the freshly prepared microemulsion was measured at 10 cPs at 25 C and the pH was measured at 3.7 without any adjustment. The jar was sealed and placed in a 25 C static oven and analyzed weekly for both viscosity increase (linear condensation polymerization) and development of insoluble precipitation (3 dimensional crosslinking) as measured by Hach Ratio Turbidimetry. After 3 months aging at 25 C this sample was measured at 40 cPs and 5 Nephelos Turbidity Units (NTU).

Example 2

Into an 8 oz. glass jar was weighed 16.67 g of Bioshield 7200 (72% active SQAC) followed by 2.22 g of peppermint essential oil and stirred on a magnetic stirring plate until the two components were clear and uniform (1 min) With continued moderate stirring, 181.11 g of distilled water at a temperature of 35 C to 45 C was rapidly poured into the jar. Stirring was continued as the transparent concentrate slowly dissolved in the water to form a crystal clear microemulsion of peppermint oil in a 6.0% active Bioshield continuous phase. Brookfield viscosity of the freshly prepared microemulsion was measured at 10 cPs at 25 C and the pH was measured at 3.7 without any adjustment. The jar was sealed and placed in a 25 C static oven and analyzed weekly for both viscosity increase (linear condensation polymerization) and development of insoluble precipitation (3 dimensional crosslinking) as measured by Hach Ratio Turbidimetry. After 8 months aging at 25 C this sample was measured at 20 cPs and 33 NTU.

Example 3

Into an 8 oz. glass jar was weighed 16.67 g of Bioshield 7200 (72% active SQAC) followed by 2.18 g of Thyme essential oil ( T. vulgaris ) and stirred on a magnetic stirring plate until the two components were clear and uniform (1 min) With continued moderate stirring, 181.15 g of distilled water at a temperature of 35 C to 45 C was rapidly poured into the jar. Stirring was continued as the transparent concentrate slowly dissolved in the water to form a crystal clear microemulsion of thyme oil in a 6.0% active Bioshield continuous phase. Brookfield viscosity of the freshly prepared microemulsion was measured at 10 cPs at 25 C and the pH was measured at 3.7 without any adjustment. The jar was sealed and placed in a 25 C static oven and analyzed weekly for both viscosity increase (linear condensation polymerization) and development of insoluble precipitation (3 dimensional crosslinking) as measured by Hach Ratio Turbidimetry. After 6 months aging at 25 C this sample was measured at 24 cPs and 30 NTU.

Example 4

Into an 8 oz. glass jar was weighed 16.67 g of Bioshield 7200 (72% active SQAC) followed by 3.60 g of grapefruit essential oil and stirred on a magnetic stirring plate until the two components were clear and uniform (1 min) With continued moderate stirring, 179.73 g of distilled water at a temperature of 35 C to 45 C was rapidly poured into the jar. Stirring was continued as the transparent concentrate slowly dissolved in the water to form a crystal clear microemulsion of grapefruit oil in a 6.0% active Bioshield continuous phase. Brookfield viscosity of the freshly prepared microemulsion was measured at 10 cPs at 25 C and the pH was measured at 3.7 without any adjustment. The jar was sealed and placed in a 25 C static oven and analyzed weekly for both viscosity increase (linear condensation polymerization) and development of insoluble precipitation (3 dimensional crosslinking) as measured by Hach Ratio Turbidimetry. After 3 months aging at 25 C this sample was measured at 12 cPs and 10 NTU.

Example 5

Into an 8 oz. glass jar was weighed 16.67 g of Bioshield 7200 (72% active SQAC) followed by 3.60 g of orange essential oil and stirred on a magnetic stirring plate until the two components were clear and uniform (1 min). With continued moderate stirring, 179.73 g of distilled water at a temperature of 35 C to 45 C was rapidly poured into the jar. Stirring was continued as the transparent concentrate slowly dissolved in the water to form a crystal clear microemulsion of orange oil in a 6.0% active Bioshield continuous phase. Brookfield viscosity of the freshly prepared microemulsion was measured at 10 cPs at 25 C and the pH was measured at 3.7 without any adjustment. The jar was sealed and placed in a 25 C static oven and analyzed weekly for both viscosity increase (linear condensation polymerization) and development of insoluble precipitation (3 dimensional crosslinking) as measured by Hach Ratio Turbidimetry. After 3 months aging at 25 C this sample was measured at 22 cPs and 5 NTU.

Example 6

Into an 8 oz. glass jar was weighed 16.67 g of Bioshield 7200 (72% active SQAC) followed by 3.60 g of lime essential oil and stirred on a magnetic stirring plate until the two components were clear and uniform (1 min). With continued moderate stirring, 179.73 g of distilled water at a temperature of 35 C to 45 C was rapidly poured into the jar. Stirring was continued as the transparent concentrate slowly dissolved in the water to form a crystal clear microemulsion of lime oil in a 6.0% active Bioshield continuous phase. Brookfield viscosity of the freshly prepared microemulsion was measured at 10 cPs at 25 C and the pH was measured at 3.7 without any adjustment. The jar was sealed and placed in a 25 C static oven and analyzed weekly for both viscosity increase (linear condensation polymerization) and development of insoluble precipitation (3 dimensional crosslinking) as measured by Hach Ratio Turbidimetry. After 3 months aging at 25 C this sample was measured at 32 cPs and 12 NTU.

Example 7

Into an 8 oz. glass jar was weighed 16.67 g of Bioshield 7200 (72% active SQAC) followed by 3.60 g of tangerine essential oil and stirred on a magnetic stirring plate until the two components were clear and uniform (1 min) With continued moderate stirring, 179.73 g of distilled water at a temperature of 35 C to 45 C was rapidly poured into the jar. Stirring was continued as the transparent concentrate slowly dissolved in the water to form a crystal clear microemulsion of tangerine oil in a 6.0% active Bioshield continuous phase. Brookfield viscosity of the freshly prepared microemulsion was measured at 10 cPs at 25 C and the pH was measured at 3.7 without any adjustment. The jar was sealed and placed in a 25 C static oven and analyzed weekly for both viscosity increase (linear condensation polymerization) and development of insoluble precipitation (3 dimensional crosslinking) as measured by Hach Ratio Turbidimetry. After 3 months aging at 25 C this sample was measured at 16 cPs and 5 Nephelos Turbidity Units (NTU).

Example 8

Into an 8 oz. glass jar was weighed 16.67 g of Bioshield 7200 (72% active SQAC) followed by 3.60 g of lemon essential oil and stirred on a magnetic stirring plate until the two components were clear and uniform (1 min). With continued moderate stirring, 179.73 g of distilled water at a temperature of 35 C to 45 C was rapidly poured into the jar. Stirring was continued as the transparent concentrate slowly dissolved in the water to form a crystal clear microemulsion of lemon oil in a 6.0% active Bioshield continuous phase. Brookfield viscosity of the freshly prepared microemulsion was measured at 10 cPs at 25 C and the pH was measured at 3.7 without any adjustment. The jar was sealed and placed in a 25 C static oven and analyzed weekly for both viscosity increase (linear condensation polymerization) and development of insoluble precipitation (3 dimensional crosslinking) as measured by Hach Ratio Turbidimetry. After 3 months aging at 25 C this sample was measured at 16 cPs and 5 Nephelos Turbidity Units (NTU).

Example 9

Into an 8 oz. glass jar was weighed 16.67 g of Bioshield 7200 (72% active SQAC) followed by 3.60 g of pine essential oil and stirred on a magnetic stirring plate until the two components were clear and uniform (1 min). With continued moderate stirring, 179.73 g of distilled water at a temperature of 35 C to 45 C was rapidly poured into the jar. Stirring was continued as the transparent concentrate slowly dissolved in the water to form a crystal clear microemulsion of pine oil in a 6.0% active Bioshield continuous phase. Brookfield viscosity of the freshly prepared microemulsion was measured at 10 cPs at 25 C and the pH was measured at 3.7 without any adjustment. The jar was sealed and placed in a 25 C static oven and analyzed weekly for both viscosity increase (linear condensation polymerization) and development of insoluble precipitation (3 dimensional crosslinking) as measured by Hach Ratio Turbidimetry. After 3 months aging at 25 C this sample was measured at 18 cPs and 9 NTU.

Example 10

Into an 8 oz. glass jar was weighed 16.67 g of Bioshield 7200 (72% active SQAC) followed by 3.60 g of cedarwood essential oil and stirred on a magnetic stirring plate until the two components were clear and uniform (1 min) With continued moderate stirring, 179.73 g of distilled water at a temperature of 35 C to 45 C was rapidly poured into the jar. Stirring was continued as the transparent concentrate slowly dissolved in the water to form a crystal clear microemulsion of cedarwood oil in a 6.0% active Bioshield continuous phase. Brookfield viscosity of the freshly prepared microemulsion was measured at 10 cPs at 25 C and the pH was measured at 3.7 without any adjustment. The jar was sealed and placed in a 25 C static oven and analyzed weekly for both viscosity increase (linear condensation polymerization) and development of insoluble precipitation (3 dimensional crosslinking) as measured by Hach Ratio Turbidimetry. After 3 months aging at 25 C this sample was measured at 4 cPs and 5 NTU.

Comparative Example 11

Into an 8 oz. glass jar was weighed 16.67 g of Bioshield 7200 (72% active SQAC) followed by NO essential oil. With moderate stirring, 183.33 g of distilled water at a temperature of 35 C to 45 C was rapidly poured into the jar. Stirring was continued as the transparent concentrate slowly dissolved in the water to form a crystal clear solution of a 6.0% active Bioshield. Brookfield viscosity of the freshly prepared solution was measured at 10 cPs at 25 C and the pH was measured at 3.6 without any adjustment. The jar was sealed and placed in a 25 C static oven and analyzed daily for both viscosity increase (linear condensation polymerization) and development of insoluble precipitation (3 dimensional crosslinking) as measured by Hach Ratio Turbidimetry. After 13 days aging at 25 C this sample was measured at 630 cPs and 100 NTU, exceeding both storage stability limits set for these parameters.

A summary of findings of the Examples is set forth in TABLE 1:

TABLE 1EFFECT OF BOTANICALS ON TURBIDITY AND VISCOSITY OF AGED SQAC COMPOSITIONSINITIALAFTER AGINGBOTANICALTURBIDITYVISCOSITYTURBIDITYVISCOSITYAGESQAC (g)BOTANICAL(g)WATER (g)(NTU)(cPs)pH(NTU)(cPs)(months)16.67Tea tree3.6179.731103.7540316.67Peppermint2.22181.111103.73320816.67Thyme2.18181.151103.73024616.67Grapefruit3.6179.731103.71012316.67Orange3.6179.731103.7522316.67lime3.6179.731103.71232316.67Tangerine3.6179.731103.7516316.67Lemon3.6179.731103.7516316.67Pine3.6179.731103.7918316.67Cedarwood3.6179.731103.754316.67Orange Peel3.6179.731103.7818316.67NONE0183.331103.61006300.43

FIG. 1 graphically represents the overall stability effectiveness of SQAC/essential oil microemulsions as a function of the concentration of volatile essential oil and the concentration of silanol quaternary ammonium compound. This is shown in the form of a surface response curve illustrating the interplay of the concentration of the SQAC and essential oil on the stability effectiveness of the composition, including turbidity, viscosity and phase separation. More specifically, compositions were rated 5 if they were expected to be superior. Compositions were rated 4 if they were expected to be good. Compositions were rated 3 if they were expected to be acceptable. Compositions were rated 2 if they were expected to be poor. Compositions were rated 1 if they were expected to be unacceptable. As can be seen, there is a sweet spot for achieving the most desirable composition, as indicated by the 5's. Indeed even very low concentrations of antimicrobial SQAC's are beneficial.

This surface response curve is set forth on data of TABLE 2:

TABLE 2Wt % VolatileDesirabilityDesirabilityBotanical on Active@ 0.75% Active@ 6.0% ActiveSQACSQACSQAC01151110221553205425553055353240115011

As shown in FIG. 2, aged compositions of SQAC/essential oil microemulsions exhibit substantially lower turbidity than the aged composition having no essential oil. The data corresponding to this graph is set forth in TABLE 1. It is important to note that the negative control (NONE) was aged only 13 days, while the test samples were aged 3-8 months.

As shown in FIG. 3, aged compositions of SQAC/essential oil microemulsions exhibit substantially lower viscosity than the aged composition having no essential oil. The data corresponding to this graph is set forth in TABLE 1. It is important to note that the negative control (NONE) was aged only 13 days, while the test samples were aged 1-8 months.

FIG. 6 depicts demonstrates the viscosity of the same concentration of peppermint oil at pH of 3.7 and 4.2. The 4.2 pH sample fully precipitated out after 80 days, so there was no viscosity or data charted after 80 days.